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Basic knowledge of textile fiber classification and identification

Basic knowledge of textile fiber classification and identification 1. Definition: Pure cotton woven fabric is a textile made of cotton as raw material and made of warp and weft yar…

Basic knowledge of textile fiber classification and identification

1. Definition: Pure cotton woven fabric is a textile made of cotton as raw material and made of warp and weft yarns intertwined vertically and horizontally through a loom.

 2. Pure cotton fabrics are divided into:

① Natural white cloth: ordinary cloth, fine cloth, coarse cloth, canvas, twill gray cloth, original color cloth.

② Colored cloth: There are vulcanized blue cloth, vulcanized ink cloth, Shilin blue cloth, Shilin gray cloth, colored poplin, various colors of khaki, and various colors of Chinese cloth.

 ③ Patterned cloth: It is cloth printed and dyed with various colors and patterns. Such as: plain printed fabric, printed twill, printed serge, printed Zhigong.

④ Yarn-dyed fabric: It is a fabric made by dyeing yarn or thread first and then weaving it on a machine, such as checked cloth, sheet cloth, flannel cloth, thread cloth, decorative cloth, etc.

 3. Characteristics of pure cotton fabrics:

 ① Hygroscopicity: Cotton fiber has good hygroscopicity. Under normal circumstances, the fiber can absorb moisture from the surrounding atmosphere. Its moisture content is 8-10%, so when it comes into contact with human skin, it makes people Feels soft without being stiff. If the humidity of cotton cloth increases and the surrounding temperature is high, all the moisture contained in the fiber will evaporate and dissipate, keeping the fabric in a water balance state and making people feel comfortable.

② Moisturizing properties: Because cotton fiber is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, the thermal conductivity coefficient is extremely low, and because cotton fiber itself is porous and has high elasticity, a large amount of air can accumulate between the fibers, and the air is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is a poor conductor, so pure cotton fiber textiles have good moisture retention, and wearing pure cotton fabric clothing makes people feel warm.

③ Heat resistance: Pure cotton fabrics have good heat resistance. When the temperature is below 110°C, it will only cause the water on the fabric to evaporate and will not damage the fibers. Therefore, pure cotton fabrics are not suitable for wearing, washing, printing and dyeing at normal temperatures. It has no impact on the fabrics, thus improving the washability and wearability of pure cotton fabrics.

④ Alkali resistance: Cotton fiber has greater resistance to alkali. When cotton fiber is in an alkali solution, the fiber will not be damaged. This property is conducive to the washing of pollution after consumption, disinfection and removal of impurities, and can also be used to clean and remove impurities. Pure cotton textiles are dyed, printed and processed in various processes to produce more new varieties of cotton fabrics.

 ⑤ Hygiene: Cotton fiber is a natural fiber, its main component is cellulose, as well as a small amount of waxy substances, nitrogen-containing substances and pectin. Pure cotton fabrics have been tested and practiced in many aspects. There is no irritation or negative effects when the fabric comes into contact with the skin. It is beneficial to the human body when worn for a long time and has good hygienic performance.

Seven. Man-made fiber fabrics (chemical fibers)

1. Definition: Chemical fiber is a general term for textile fibers obtained through chemical processing using natural polymer substances or synthetic polymer substances.

 2. Classification (according to raw materials and production methods):

 ① Man-made fiber: It is a large-scale production variety of chemical fibers. It is made of natural polymer substances containing cellulose or protein, such as wood, bagasse, reed, soybeans, cheese, etc., as raw materials, and is processed chemically and mechanically. . For example: artificial cotton, rayon, artificial wool, tiger kapok, Fuqiang cotton.

 ②Synthetic fiber: Synthetic fiber is a major category of chemical fiber. It is a by-product of the petrochemical industry and the coking industry. For example: polyester, nylon, polyester, vinylon, polypropylene, chlorine, etc. are all synthetic fibers.

8. Blended fabrics:

Blended chemical fiber fabric is a textile product made of chemical fiber mixed with other natural fibers such as cotton, silk, linen and other natural fibers. For example: polyester cotton cloth, polyester wool gabardine, etc.

9. Key points for washing, ironing, collecting and storing fabric products:

1. Pay attention to maintaining the shape of key parts of clothing, such as shoulders, collars, cuffs, etc., especially hard collars finished with resin, which must be brushed.

2. For fabrics with typical styles, attention should be paid to protecting their unique appearance and inner patterns, such as corduroy, velveteen, etc. When twisting, wrap the suede inside, and flatten it when drying to avoid deformation of the suede. For jacquard fabrics, do not use a hard brush to wash vigorously to prevent yarn breakage and fluffing.

 3. Cotton fabrics have good physical and chemical properties, but they should not be soaked in washing liquid for too long or exposed to the sun for too long to prevent color damage


4. Cotton fabrics are easy to lose color. When washing, it is necessary to prevent cross-dying and color matching, which will affect the appearance of the fabric

Source: “China Textile Network”



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